Fleur P

Senses
1. What are the 5 senses of the body?
Answer : Smell, Taste, Sight, Hear and touch
2. What are the 5 sense organs?
Answer : Eye, Mouth/ tounge, ear , nose and finger.
3. Pick 2 senses and explain how the sense organ detects that particular sense
Answer: Eye, It alows you to see and view buy your pupil opening and closing to alow certian amounts of sun/ light in.

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Mouth / Tounge It alows you to have diffrent opoinins on flavours of food, herbs and spices, The tounge is also very sensitive.
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4. It must be explained in your own words and include at least 3 relevant diagrams

Body Systems
1. Choose 3 of the following systems of the body
DigestiveRespiratoryCirculatoryUrinarySkeletalMuscular
My choice Urinary System
2. List the names of the different parts of the body involved in the system
Answer :
  • Two kidneys
  • Two ureters.
  • Bladder
  • Two sphincter muscles
  • Nerves in the bladder
  • Urethra
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3. Explain in detail how each system works. include any diagrams, video clips or links to helpful websites 4. Discuss what effects diet, smoking, or alcohol may have on the system

Answer :
  • Two kidneys- a pair of purplish-brown organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back.produce urine.
  • Two ureters - narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand still, About every 10 to 15 seconds, small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters.


  • Bladder - located in the lower abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine.
  • Two sphincter muscles - circular muscles that help keep urine from leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder.
  • Nerves in the bladder - alert a person when it is time to urinate, or empty the bladder.
  • Urethra - the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra.

My second choice Digestive system.

Parts of the digestive system.
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder
Colon (large intestine)
Rectum
Anus


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Mouth

The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.

Esophagus

Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.

Stomach

The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine.

Small intestine

Made up of three segments — the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum — the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.
Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.

Pancreas

The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.

Liver

The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body’s chemical "factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs.

Gallbladder

The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats.

Colon (large intestine)

The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient.

Rectum

The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts, disposing its contents. If the contents cannot be disposed, the sphincter contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away.

Anus

The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The anus is surrounded by sphincter muscles that are important in allowing control of stool. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to.

Third choice respitory system
Parts.
Nose
Mouth
Trachea .
Bronchi and Alveoli .
The Lungs.
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Parts and functions.

Nose . The nose is the uppermost part of the respiratory tract. It is made up to two bones and cartilage. It forms a hollow passage that connects the nostrils and the top of the throat. This passage is called the nasal cavity . It is lined with a mucous membrane which bears tiny hairs. The function of the nose is to filter, warm and moisten the air before it moves on to other parts of the respiratory tract. The tiny hairs trap the dust particles, bacteria and other foreign bodies that enter the nose. These hairs also induce sneezing to remove foreign bodies lodged in the nose.

Mouth .The arch at the back of your throat leads into your pharynx, or throat . The pharynx is a passageway from the back of the mouth and nose to the upper part of the esophagus and into the voice box,. The pharynx acts like a station where the food tube and the air tube meet. Food beings swallowed is prevented from entering the air tube by a thin structure, called epiglottis , that closes the air tube. This is why you cannot breathe while you are swallowing.

Trachea . At the lower end of the pharynx is the larynx which forms part of the air tube. It is made of cartilage. One of its functions is production of voice. It does this with the help of either one of two pairs of vocal cords. When air from the lungs passes over the stretched vocal cords, vibrations are produced. The tongue palate and lips modify the vibrations to produce speech. Another function of the larynx is to prevent choking. The elongated space between the vocal cords is called glottis . As mentioned earlier, the epiglottis folds back over the glottis when you swallow food, so the food cannot enter the trachea or air tube.

Bronchi and Alveoli . The trachea branches into two tubes-the bronchi. Each bronchus (singular of bronchi) enters the lung and branches into narrower tubes called bronchioles . The walls of the bronchi and larger bronchioles are supported by cartilage. Their walls produce mucus which is moved upward by the cilia to clear the air passage. Each bronchiole ends in balloon like air sacs called alveoli . The alveoli have thin walls which are surrounded by blood vessels. The bronchi and bronchioles form the air passage into the lungs. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli. There are about 300 million alveoli in the lungs. These alveoli increase the surface area of the lungs and allow many blood vessels to collect oxygen.

The Lungs . We have two lungs. They lie in the chest cavity and are surrounded by the rib cage. Each lung is enclosed in the double membrane called the pleura . The pleurae are coated by fluid. This allows the lungs to slide freely as they expand and contract during breathing. The right lung has three lobes while the left lung has two. Each lobe has its own bronchi, bronchioles and blood vessels. The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Their function is to supply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.

Diaphragm. The diaphragm is a curved sheet of smooth muscle which separates the thorax from the abdomen. When it contracts, the diaphragm flattens, which INCREASES the volume of the THORAX, which then EXPANDS the lungs. Contracting the diaphragm therefore is associated with breathing IN, NOT OUT.