Anna D
Senses
1. What are the 5 senses of the body? Smell, Touch, sight, hearing,taste
2. What are the 5 sense organs? Smell=nose, touch=the body (especially hands), sight= eyes, hearing= ears, taste= tastebuds
3. Pick 2 senses and explain how the sense organ detects that particular sense
Eye it allows you to see and view by your pupil opening and closing to allow cirtun amounts of light in.
Tongue
helps you taste food using taste buds, it also helps you talk if you don't have a tongue you can't talk.
4. It must be explained in your own words and include at least 3 relevant diagrams

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Tongue
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Body Systems
1. Choose 3 of the following systems of the body
Digestive Respiratory Circulatory Urinary Skeletal Muscular2. List the names of the different parts of the body involved in the system3. Explain in detail how each system works. include any diagrams, video clips or links to helpful websites

Urinary system
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1. Kidneys- the kidneys are two brownish, bean shaped organs about the size of a fist, they weigh about 5 ounces. They are located in the upper right and left back part of the abdominal cavity. Each kidney contains about 1,200,000 microscopic filters called nephrons. Nephrons are smaller than the smaller dots.
The main function or the kidneys are to maintain the water balance and to eliminate waste materials from the blood.
2. Ureters – the left and the right ureters are long muscular tubes. They are about 12 inches long with a diameter 2 to 3 millimeters.
The ureters connect pelvis of each kidney to urinary bladder. They carry urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
3. The Urinary Bladder – the urinary bladder is a muscular sac that holds urine. It is located in front the pelvis and behind the pubis. As the bladder fills walls stretch signaling the desire to urinate.
4. The Urethra- the urethra is a muscular tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside part of the body. In the female, it is a one inch long from the bladder to the cleft of the labia. In the male, it is several inches long from the prostate gland to the penis. When one is about to urinate, a value in the urethra relaxes to allow the urine to flow out.
Respiratory system


  • Mouth, nose & nasal cavity: The function of this part of the system is to warm, filter and moisten the incoming air
  • Pharynx: Here the throat divides into the trachea (wind pipe) and oesophagus (food pipe). There is also a small flap of cartilage called the epiglottis which prevents food from entering the trachea
  • Larynx: This is also known as the voice box as it is where sound is generated. It also helps protect the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any solid objects pass the epiglottis.
  • Trachea: Also known as the windpipe this is the tube which carries air from the throat into the lungs. It ranges from 20-25mm in diameter and 10-16cm in length. The inner membrane of the trachea is covered in tiny hairs called cilia, which catch particles of dust which we can then remove through coughing. The trachea is surrounded by 15-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage at the front and side which help protect the trachea and keep it open. They are not complete circles due to the position of the oesophagus immediately behind the trachea and the need for the trachea to partially collapse to allow the expansion of the oesophagus when swallowing large pieces of food.
  • Bronchi: The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, one entering the left and one entering the right lung. The left bronchi is narrower, longer and more horizontal than the right. Irregular rings of cartilage surround the bronchi, whose walls also consist of smooth muscle. Once inside the lung the bronchi split several ways, forming tertiary bronchi.
  • Bronchioles: Tertiary bronchi continue to divide and become bronchioles, very narrow tubes, less than 1 millimeter in diameter. There is no cartilage within the bronchioles and they lead to alveolar sacs.
  • Alveoli: Individual hollow cavities contained within alveolar sacs. Alveoli have very thin walls which permit theexchange of gases Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. They are surrounded by a network of capillaries, into which the inspired gases pass. There are approximately 3 million alveoli within an average adult lung.
  • Diaphragm: The diaphragm is a broad band of muscle which sits underneath the lungs, attaching to the lower ribs, sternum and lumbar spine and forming the base of the thoracic cavity.

Muscular System


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Skeletal Muscles

Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by dense, fibrous connective tissue called tendons. These muscles are described as striated because they consist of alternating bands of light and dark layers that resemble stripes when viewed under a microscope. In addition to moving bones at the joints, skeletal muscles also exert balanced tension to hold bones in place to maintain the body's position, or posture. Because these muscles are under conscious control, you can choose to exercise them, which builds muscle mass over time. After skeletal muscles have used up the oxygen supply available to them, they become fatigued, incurring "oxygen debt," meaning that they need to be rested and reoxygenated. Heavy breathing during and after exercise helps correct this by raising blood oxygen levels.

Cardiac Muscle

Like the skeletal muscles, the cardiac, or heart, muscle is striated, but its action is beyond conscious control. The heart consists of four chambers that contract in unison, the left side pumping blood out through the aorta to all cells of the body and the right side pumping blood to the lungs and then back to the heart. At rest, the number of beats per minute, called heart rate, and the quantity of blood ejected by the heart per beat, called stroke volume, are steady. However, when the skeletal muscles are exercised, they send signals to the heart via nerve cells to provide more oxygen. During strenuous activity, cardiac output can increase to five to eight times its resting capacity, indicating that the heart is rushing an extra supply of oxygenated blood to the muscles being worked and to the lungs to help them sustain the increased respiration rate.

Smooth or Visceral Muscles

Visceral muscles, found in blood vessels and organs including the intestines, stomach and urinary tract, are involuntary and lack the striations apparent in the other two muscle groups. They respond to demands for increased oxygen from the skeletal muscles by narrowing or widening blood vessels to direct the supply to wherever the skeletal muscles most need it. Visceral muscle contractions also move food through the digestive tract and cause the uterus to propel a baby through the birth canal. People with physically fit skeletal muscles also tend to have stronger visceral muscles.
  • MOVEMENTS OF BODY PARTS: Skeletal muscles are responsible for all voluntary movements of human body parts. They provide the force by contracting actively at the expense of energy. In other words, muscles are motors of body where chemical energy of food is converted into mechanical work.
  • STABILITY AND POSTURE: Skeletal muscles stabilize human skeleton and give a proper posture to human beings. Some joints of human body are weak and they require the support of muscular system to achieve stability. Skeletal muscles are very important for such joints.
  • HEAT PRODUCTION: A large share of body’s energy is used by muscular system. As a result of high metabolic rate, muscles produce great amount of heat in the body. Heat produced by muscles is very important in cold climates.
  • CIRCULATION: Cardiac muscles provide the main force for circulation of blood throughout human body. The regular pumping of heat keeps the blood in motion and nutrients are readily available to every tissue of human body.
  • HELP IN DIGESTION: Smooth muscles of organs like stomach and intestine help the digestive system in the process of digestion of food.


Parts of the digestive system.

Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder
Large intestine
Rectum Anus
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Mouth:

The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.

Esophagus:

Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.

Stomach:

The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine.

Small Intestine:

Made up of three segments — the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum — the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.

Pancreas:

The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.

Liver:

The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body’s chemical "factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs.

Gallbladder:

The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats.

Large Intestine:

The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient.

Rectum:

The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts, disposing its contents. If the contents cannot be disposed, the sphincter contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away.

Anus:

The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The anus is surrounded by sphincter muscles that are important in allowing control of stool. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to.